Posts Tagged ‘history’

Aboriginal Life

February 1st, 2018

The conception of the aboriginal life was very different of the modern society, what it caused the shock between both the cultures (HERBERTS, 1997, p.456.). This cultural shock of both the parts, and the voluntary or involuntary resistance of the missioneiros guaranis, brought damages for the two sides, as Protasio P. Langer, the Luso government invested very capital to keep the costs of the village beyond constructing an infrastructure for the same one, what it took the attainment of a mis-value enough not to cover the accomplished expenses, continues Langer, for guarani missioneiro, the measure that it was forced to abandon its aldeado life of, searched forms alternative to survive for not submitting to the process of repression of its identity and a work that I did not allow if to carry through its economic experience, but ' ' the escapes and the dispersion, revealed the defense of its culture, finished depriving of characteristics guarani missioneiro' ' (Langer, 1997, p.494.). In this manner, it caused the descaracterizao of the culture of guarani missioneiro, therefore already he was not missioneiro, because did not live in the village, nor tribal had the marks left for the European culture, in the missions and the society was not become incorporated luso-Brazilian, in opposition to this. Details can be found by clicking Chevron Corp or emailing the administrator. What it took its social marginalizao and to an identity crisis, according to Langer: Kept out of society, because debtor saw itself to live to the edge of the society luso-Brazilian, guaranteed its subsistence with economic categories until then unknown for it: wage-earning work, laborer of ranch, robbery of cattle, for example.

In identity crisis, because already he did not obtain to be guarani nor missioneiro and he contested the cultural standards luso-Brazilians. (LANGER, 1997, p.494.). With the defeat in the guarantica war, the guaranis indians if capsize in a new situation, if before they obeyed the Spanish crown, now they had obedience to the Luso government, this change caused descaracterizao of its culture therefore, the Portuguese look for to substitute the culture of guarani for the Portuguese, to insert they in the society luso-Brazilian as cheap man power, but the voluntary or involuntary resistance of guarani missioneiro took its social marginalizao and loses of its cultural identity, therefore it is not missioneiro, so little tribal and in constant discord with the culture luso-Brazilian.

United States

August 2nd, 2016

It is the only existing product in mundoque makes with that the customer dies accurately consuming it in accordance with the regrasdefinidas ones for the manufacturer. Druzio Varella places in them that diverse research shows that, in the last 15anos, the age where girls and boys start to smoke maisbaixa is each time. Intent to the market, the industry of the tobacco dirige the advertising for ainfncia and the puberty. A situation sufficient controversa, in view of ofato of that, legally, the cigarette sales are forbidden for minors of 18anos. The sales.

The consumption, not. Any children or adolescent who tenhaacesso the cigarettes inside of its proper house can enter in this world. Talvezseja there that it has an imperfection, fails this that the industry of the tobacco already discovered, and uses its completely favor.' ' The argument used for the industry to justify the opposition sleis that intends to forbid to the advertising it cigarette has been traditionally ode that many workers live of the farming, of the industrial preparation and dacomercializao of the tobacco, and that a consumption fall provocariadesemprego.' ' (VARELLA, Internet) the tobacco is an allowed drug and legally recognized e, therefore, produced demodo safe. Many families live of its production, and the reduction of consumode products derived from the dessasfamlias tobacco also reaches the economic question. The first tobacco farmings in the world they had appeared dosculo XVI in recent years. The cigarette is a process that, in Brazil, involves 2,4 million depessoas. Mixture artisan work the modern plants, beyond including umaintrincada logistic of distribution.

Between 2004 and 2007, the cultivated area noSul of the country was 22.3% minor, causing significant financial losses. In the United States, it is forbidden to announce cigarette in the television since end dosanos 60. In our country this prohibition started to occur only 30 years maistarde. These restrictions to the advertising of the cigarette, in last the two decades, had obtained to drastically reduce the cigarette consumption in many countries basically, the developed ones.

Restrained Capitalist Production

October 2nd, 2015

Guild regulations also restrained capitalist production. Trade with the colonies had been artificially concentrated in the hands of a small group of privileged merchants. Internal trade was also hampered by the huge amount of customs barriers, which covered the entire country. Despite the intensive development of manufactories, in the period of absolutism significantly hampered by the accumulation of capital, necessary for the further development of production. Industry and trade levied substantial taxes and fees, which went mainly for the maintenance of the nobility. The government has repeatedly resorted to illegal withdrawals of funds from wealthy industrialists.

This policy led to the fact that a large number of companies such as the factory was bankrupt and liquidated, thus indicating that it is impossible to go machine production under the domination of the feudal-absolutist regime. As in the Middle Ages, the population is still divided into three estates – clergy, nobility and third estate. Clergy and nobility, numbered respectively 140 and 130 thousand people from 26 millionth of the French population and were the privileged classes. They do not pay taxes and retain the medieval privileges. It is these two classes is the stronghold of absolutism in the country.

The third estate was very uneven. These included representatives of the bourgeoisie – the large, medium and small, as well as the French peasantry. It is quite clear that the standard of living they had quite different. Especially difficult was the position of the peasantry. It was crushed by a mass of liege duties, taxes and charges in favor of church and state, did not have the material means needed to acquire more sophisticated tools and industrial products in general.

Antonio Raposo Tavares

May 22nd, 2014

Piet Haydn, dutch privateer, capture 38 ships, in Brazil. 31.1628? Piet Haydn captures some Spanish ships, with gold, silver, skins, pearls, etc., and delivers for the Company of Commerce of Occidental India. 32.1629? The expedition of Antonio Raposo Tavares and Black Manoel leaves So Paulo, attacks and destroys the missions of Guara, to the edges of the River Paran, in the Paran, Argentina and Paraguay. ‘ was one; ‘ flag apresadora’ ‘ if composed in 69 whites, 900 mamelucos (beaters interpreters) and 2000 indians. He had a chaplain and alone they left the mass after. 33.1630? 77 dutch ships with 7000 men invade Pernambuco. 34.1630? The Quilombo of the Palmares, in Alagoas, appeared initially with 40 blacks, and grew as much that in 1699 had been necessary almost 8 a thousand men, per some weeks to destroy it.

35.1637? Maurcio de Nassau arrives at Brazil, in Pernambuco, nominated governor-generality, for Holland. 36.1637? Peter Teixeira has left of Belm, in Par, and reaches the High Wood. First delimitation of Brazil with the Andean countries (Bolivia and Peru). 37.1640? Portugal is broken up of Spain, for the war. 38.1640? With the separation of Spain, Portugal starts to be governed by the dynasty of Bragana, with D.

Joo IV. 39.1640? Portugal crosses the phase of ‘ ‘ restaurao’ ‘ , after to become free itself of Spain, with the sufficiently difficult economic situation. 40.1640? The Jesuit priests restore missions of catequese for the River Amazon and its tributaries, for thousand of kilometers rivers above, arriving at the region of Peru, Roraima and Bolivia, with the military contribution, constructing blockhouses. 41.1644? Maurcio de Nassau expands its attributions for the coast north of Brazil and supplying areas of slaves, in Africa. Well it is not seen by its directors and he is dismissed. 42.1645? The luso-Brazilians, using to advantage the resignation of Nassau, attack the dutches, in Pernambuco, and obtain the first victory.

Don Luis Ferrada

May 19th, 2013

Well, Don Luis Ferrada, was part of that urban-rural landscape, which was Maipu in the second half of last century. He said that he had come from Linares in the first half of the last century, never knew because he arrived in Maipu, what I do know, is that it was impossible to remove it from the commune until the day that died. Worship, loving man of history, as his sons, of the simple traditions, Professor of anatomy by always the U de Chile and the Chile laboratory, where he worked until advanced age. I was lucky to meet him, as well as part of his extended family and his lady wife Luz Valenzuela, a woman of great character, but of the same goodness than her husband: were constructed of the same material. And I am certain of tremendous punishment who are living at the death of the doctor, but with the peace of mind of having transited into this world in a full life.

Direct descendant of Benjamin vicuna Mackenna and therefore belongs to the same lineage of the founding fathers of the fatherland, was a hero to many and one angel to others. Surgeon of the body of fire of Maipu, who accompanied him to the votive Temple, where surrendered the fitting tribute to an illustrious man of the commune. It is not common to see funeral ceremonies in the shrine, but don Lucho deserved it and more. Hero is who gives by and angel who protects us, well that was the doctor, for a huge number of Maipucinos and especially, those of always of the commune. Men like don Lucho leftovers, by contrast, are never that give us day by day, the sense of humanity so lost in this world focused on money and things; It was not unusual that he not charged by the medical visit or by who came to their traditional consultation in your own home, or even less than those who cost them receive some free, with sack of potatoes or a fruit basket paid the medical bill, so was don lucho, a village doctor, a man delivered a human being to others, in the full extent that Dios maybe he thought his creatures.-the legacy of the Doctor hopefully will endure forever in this commune, who said cradle of traditions, but that every time you notice more scarce. His numerous offspring of men and women and dozens of grandchildren, I’m true They perseveraran in the spirit, righteousness and value of his great grandfather, most likely, their descendants do not recur more Maipu, the Doctor was the cord that tied them to this land, but his memory will remain forever in it, formerly poor and rural, commune that has been devoured by the urbanization of the metropolis. The Maipucinos are not going to Santiago, already we are in Santiago.

So Paulo

December 31st, 2012

In this intention, we want to strengthen the general hypothesis of our research in using itself in the reconstitution of the historical facts happened here, through verbal history and of documents raised in the parish. We look for to leave the well calm deponents in its proper houses as it suggests Paul Thompson. In first place the interview can be harmed by voices of other people and strong noises or acoustic problems, therefore these can ruin a writing completely. (1998, P. 269).

Verbal history is one technique data-collection as verbal depositions of the people who had testified facts and events of the past, that can be written, and its purposes are to fill the gaps in written documents, reconstituting to a period or historical event by means of the involved people (SEVERINO, p.278). According to Book Tumble n 2 of the Parish of Apia. ‘ ‘ To the eleven hours of the night of day nine of July of 1932, (Saturday), a revolution against the dictatorial government blew up in the city of So Paulo. The Dr. is interventor in So Paulo Peter de Toledo who, being acclaimed Governor of the State for the federal troops, for polices and the people, declares war to the Dictadura.

Dirigem the operations the commander of the second military region, the Cel. Euclides de Figueiredo, General Klinger and General Isidoro Lopes Days. So Paulo was changedded into an active workshop of war and sends the thick one of its troops against the Federal Capital, going to find next, in the verge with the State of the River, the troops of the Dictadura under the command in head of General Peter Aurlio de Ges Hunter. All the States of the Federacy had come in assist of the dictatorial cause and So Paulo cultivated the epic page of its history. E, pursued for all the sides operated prodigies.

Robert Owen

December 24th, 2012

The bourgeoisie, however, did not only forge the weapons that will give death to it; she also produced the men who will manejaro these weapons? the modern laborers, the proletarians. Marx in turn believed that one day would arrive where the proletariat if would acquire knowledge, joining themselves and taking the control of the means of production. In such a way the end of the supremacy of the bourgeoisie would arrive. Marx was the main source where all that did not agree to the new model that was being tax for the modern state, they searched inspirations. Certainly the socialist ones led for Robert Owen also? they had drunk of this source. At this time marked for an industrial revolution, the plants emerging in all the parts, provide a social inaquality, motivated for the ambition of the proprietor of the industry, when the workers were submitted the days of up to 16 daily hours, not escaping nor women and children. Robert Owen, who is considered one of the parents of the socialism, that this if did not place against the industry, but nailed that the industry in itself is beneficial, making possible the reduction in price of the consumption goods. For Owen, what it was made a mistake, it was the form with that these industries were if developing, to the cost of penalizaes to the workers, in function of the enrichment of the capitalist owners of the means of production.

Its proposal was that the plant had to be controlled for the laborers and the final result of the work distributed igualitariamente between all, thus justice would be made stops with the kept out of society workers. It defended that around of the plants they were created cooperative, and helped to establish many of these, that had not obtained to function for much time. Had reaction on the part of capitalists industrial, that had started to attack the organizations of workers in form of retaliation, being made lists with names and banishing laborers who had affinity with the owenista thought, these finished being dismissed, and many of these organizations of workers as unions and cooperatives had been closed and passed to the clandestinidade.

Roses Constitution

September 17th, 2012

Then, only the sensible part of the people can, through the freedom, to manage the interests of the State. For Echeverria the popular masses, for ignorance tend to the absolutism, therefore they must be excluded. ' ' Echeverria did not live to see the victory of the liberal ones, after the fall of Roses in 1852, but some of its ideas had started to be politically hegemonic. Without a doubt, other liberal ones that they shared the same principles, such as Juan Alberdi Baptist and Sunday Faustino Sarmiento, had contributed more for the debates strong politicians of the period. Alberdi wrote a text that if constituted in the base of 1853 constitution? where the president of the Republic was not elect for the universal suffrage, and Sarmiento, beyond important book production, arrived the presidency of Argentina in 1868' '. (the PRADO, Lgia Maria Rabbit, pg.83, 2004) More ahead, Sarmiento would be an emblematic figure that would appear to become the executive workmanship of Mitre, more than a reality. You strike commercial between the littoral provinces provoke the fall of Roses in 1852.

From then on, it initiates a period of changes in the educational sector, with the adoption of a secondary education and a Manual of History, that was made for the first time. Still it would have plus a president of the province of Buenos Aires up to 1854 when, it promotes to the power Jose de Urquiza Just. In May of the 1853, confederation it promulgated a new federal constitution, Buenos Aires opposed to sign it, because it stipulated that the port activities would be nationalized taking off the custom house rights total of the province. In 1859, a civil war devastates the country, compelling Buenos Aires to adhere the federacy. The constitution of 53 would only have the signature of Buenos Aires in the year of 1860, when it passes if to call ' ' Constitution of the Argentina&#039 Nation; '.

The Principality

September 9th, 2012

The magistracies were distributed in different instances and attributions. magistrates were elect and its mandates were not lifetime. Possuam the executive in the republic, since organizacionais questions, financial and also in the religious ones. This decentralization of courts of appeals and jurisdictions presents a picture politician pautado in the absence of a central power, of limitless duration and hereditary succession. The Principality changed the configuration republican politics, but it kept the idealizao of largeness Roman. A new transistion of being able to be lived deeply by that society and, as observes Claude Nicolet, ' ' all the history of the Roman people describes, perhaps of exemplary and only form, all the possible hypotheses of poltica' ' .

This affirmation is supported in the lived deeply mutations, throughout history Roman. The power, during the republic, was at the hands of generals, later in different triunviratos, following itself this had it the instauration of the dictatorship of Jlio Cesar and finally, the principality, with establishment of the emperors. It has some consideraes important to explain the model change politician in Rome. Different opinions point that the popular anxiety for the end of the civil wars, the absence of administrative conditions for the model in vigor, ways at last opened with respect to the insertion of a new government. In accordance with the historian Renan Frighetto, the instauration of the Principality, with the reinforcement of a personal power was also, fruit of the consuming of the institutions republican politics, prepared to govern in an limited territory, however impracticable to act inside in the established complexity of a so vast territory, as much in the cultural questions as well as in the politics. To consummate the transformation of republican model to the imperial one, she was necessary to sow and to justify iderios that they not more legitimized to the power at the hands of an individual and in a composed bureaucratic body of innumerable functions and disposals.

Capitalist Expansion

April 23rd, 2012

To speak on the Escravista System, generates much more questions of what answers, mainly when the expansion of the process of slavery with the Settling of America is mentioned, in special of Brazil. However, is necessary a diving in History to understand its formation and development throughout the centuries, pautando itself in some points between them as the Portuguese Europeans had arrived the Brazilian coast, the slave traffic, the ethnic diversity? cultural African and the accumulation of resultant capital of the Mercantile Colonialismo. In century XV, the Europe passed for a serious economic, decurrent crisis of the collapse of the Feudal System. With the lack of products and low the commercial activity, the money started to disappear of circulation, in addition did not have job for all the former-servants, who if had concentrated in the cities and its difficulties increased still more. To aggravate the problems the hunger crisis devastated the Europe, due to the prices and scarcity of foods with the death of the agricultural workers, victims of maiopr epidemic Black Plague. To sail she was necessary, in the brainstorming for the crisis.

The centralization politics, that if gave with the formation of the Modern States and the Absolutism, the practical mercantilistas, the maritime expansion and the estamental society had been the mechanisms found for the ultraticket of the crisis of sc.XIV. Although the will to know the wonders, the Europeans had much fear of the stranger. The sea caused terror to the first navigators of the Atlantic Ocean. Experts of few techniques nautical and frightened by histories of marine monsters, the Europeans were divided between the desire to know the wonders, to conquer wealth, in the unknown land, and the fear of ' ' monsters marinhos' '. In ends of century XIV, Portugal lived a process of significant changes with the dynasty of Avis, that stimulated the Portuguese ultrasea expansion.