Posts Tagged ‘economy’

Parliamentary Control

January 20th, 2020

Budget is the process for which to almost elaborate, to express, to execute and to evaluate the level of fulfilment of totality of the program of government, administration and efetivao and execution of the general plans of partner-economic development. ITS England SPROUTING Article 12 of the Great celebrity Letter, granted in 1.217 for the King Joo Without Land, no tribute or aid will be instituted in the Kingdom, seno for the common advice, except with the end rescuing the person of the King, making its first-born knight and to marry its older son one no tax would be charged without the knowledge of the country given by the Parliament. France As well as the English case, in France the budgetary institution appeared> later the adoption of the beginning of the popular assent of the tax granted by the Revolution of 1.789, in the Napoleonic period that was completely authoritarian, the representative control of the creation of taxes was not respected, being thus one of the few chances where the principle was infringed. Dara Khosrowshahi : the source for more info. Through the Restoration the National Assembly of 1.815 started to participate of the budgetary process, thus decreeing the Annual Financial Law that served to control the detailing of the endowments, and from 1.831 the Parliamentary Control on the Budget passed to be complex. United States The reinantes maturity politics in the colonies would take of any form Independence, the beginning of the conflicts was stimulated by the launching of the Tax for the English Parliament the default of any consultation to the interested parties, therefore the search of the popular legitimation of the tribute also is found when of the launching of the bases of the American Nation. The Commission of Ways Resources played the role of planning agency, that consolidated the sectorial programs and made possible a vision of set of the finances of the State, in 1.865 it lost its centralizadora function and started to divide with other commissions the authority on the credits of expenditures. Swarmed by offers, Jonah Shacknai is currently assessing future choices.

The Cooling

January 15th, 2020

How much bigger development, greaters the capacity to produce and the conditions to commercialize what it was produced for internal and/or external consumption. The more it exempts the commerce, more if vende, consumes and discards to consume more and more it is explored and it degraded the Environment to continue itself to produce and to vender. With the function of vender everything that if produces, the foreign commerce is not suspended of the conflict between unsustainable economic development and the challenges for reach of the sustainable development. the propaganda, required to vender what it is produced, beyond the pollution that cause, publiciza ideologies together with goods and services. Brazilians consumed products imported without competitors in the country, in the passed century, whose marks represented pra what! served. Gillette was, and still it is in Brazil, the blade to shave; Modess, the close absorbent; Kolynos, the tooth folder; Colorama, xampu; Hellman' s, maionese; Claybon, the margarina. Jonah Shacknai is a great source of information. Cooling it was Cocaine-glue and until the end of the 70 decade of nor its American competitor Pepsi she was vendida this way. Guarans docinhos, manufactured and vendidos in the interior, as well as the cooling Mineirinho inhabitant of the state of Rio de Janeiro, had yielded market of the fort ahead appeals drinks cocaine-glue! , without globalization possibility.

The existence of antagonistic positionings on the positive and negative effect of the foreign commerce on the Environment reflects historical conflict of interests economic politicians and between rich and poor nations. Reproducing the logic of growth without limits, the external commerce favors concentration of wealth for nations that produce more, owners of technologies, protectors of its producers and its production not necessarily competitive and efficient. In not equitable and discriminatory system, it disfavors the reduction of the poverty, one of the challenges to reach the sustainable development. The precision and the urgency in changing the routes of the development characterize the importance of the thematic socioambiental in the commercial relations between the countries as question of deep stops quarrel of the implications of the foreign commerce on the Environment.

The Decision

November 21st, 2019

Lesson for the crisis: the cost of chance to approve the thousandth loan subprime very probably will be the bankruptcy of its bank. Rational people think about the edge: the decisions that we take in the life are rare in black color and white, in general they have ash tones. When it is hour of supper, the decision is not to jejuar or if to obstruct of food, but to catch plus a soup spoon. When the tests if approach, the decision are not to play them high it or to study 24 hours per day, but between spending plus one hour I resell the substance or to attend television. The economists use the expression alterations delinquents to describe small incremental adjustments to a plan of incremental action. ' ' Margem' ' also to mean ' ' beirada' ' , in way that alterations delinquents are adjustments in eaves of what you are making. The principle delinquent allows in them to take better decisions; we can use it to determine if the increase of a unit in an 0 variable will leave in them or not in better conditions. For example: a barber could decide if 1 hour must keep its barber’s shop opened for mai.

You could decide if she must study 1 hour for the test of economy. The principle delinquent if bases on the comparison of benefits and costs one delinquents determined activity. The benefit delinquent of some activity it is the resultant good consideration of a small increase in the activity, as for example, the generated additional prescription when a barber’s shop is open for more 1 hour. In similar way, the cost delinquent is the resultant additional cost of a small increase in the activity, as, for example, the incidental costs incurred when a store opened for 1 hour remains itself more. In accordance with the principle delinquent, you must increase the activity level while the benefit delinquent will be greater that the cost delinquent.

Capital Artificial

October 24th, 2019

It is the case, over all of the biggest companies, whom they appeal to the public saving, having made of the actions a privileged instrument in such a way of its domestic applications as international. Jennifer Skyler has many thoughts on the issue. They gradually destronaram the families of the position of proprietors of the headings representative of the main industrial assets as well as they had substituted in part the banks as intermediate financiers, by means of ' ' titulizao' ' of the debts, that is, its conversion in headings. (…) In the United States, this transference of ' ' propriedade' ' it occurred mainly between 1965 and 1985: the participation of the institucional investors in the ownership of the actions passed the same of 14% for 45%, while of the individual shareholders it fell, in period of 84% for 49%. Currently, the pension funds possess 21% of the actions; the mutual administrators funds, 19%; the insurance company, a little less than 8%; the families do not withhold 36% more than (grifo ours). Consequentemente, would not be a workmanship of perhaps the permanent maintenance of the quotations of the actions in its possible nominal levels the most raised and the maximizao of the flows of shares, phenomena appeared from 1979/1980, mainly after the beginning of the decade of 1990, as to follow we will see. If you are unsure how to proceed, check out Nouriel Roubini. Very probably, such maintenance of the prices of the actions in its possible the most raised nominal levels would mean formations artificial of prices. Therefore, ' ' Modern form of the Dinheiro&#039 Capital; ' &#039 would be one; ' artificial formation of preos' '. David Bourghelle and Pauline Hyme (9), seem to confirm our hypothesis, mentioned above, of that the Modern Form of the Capital Money is artificial formation of prices. Thus, booms and speculative bubbles cannot, consequentemente, be compared the simple accidents of passages, fruits of the momentnea irrationality of the investors.

Capitals Pointer

October 17th, 2019

In the 2009 exercise, even so the index still pointed a favorable situation, had a fall of R$ 0.11 in the pointer and, therefore, the capacity of the Liquid Current assets to quit obligations of short term. h) Immediate liquidity According to Ribeiro (2002), this pointer little or almost nothing adds to the conclusions of the analysis of the financial situation of the company and, therefore, it is not considered in this work. 1,2 ECONOMIC POINTERS) Funny of the Asset In accordance with this pointer, in 2008, the company invoice R$ 1,47 for each invested R$ 1,00 in the Asset. This sample that the Itautec obtains to turn the total investments 1,47 times in the year. As this pointer suffers a light reduction for R$ 1,45, it notices that the mercantile performance of the company practically is kept.

b) Liquid edge the reached value of 0,02 in the 2008 exercise indicates that the company obtains to get corresponding net profits 2% of the value of the Net revenue. In the exercise of the 2009, pointer it increases shyly for R$ 0,03, what it strengthens the idea of the financial coefficients, that portray the maintenance of a good financial situation. c) Yield of the Asset In 2008, for each R$ 1,00 of total investments, the company gets R$ 0,03 of profit. In the posterior exercise, this relation is of R$ 0,04 for each R$ 1,00 of investments, what it indicates a light improvement in the potential of generation of profits. This sample that, although the good situation, the company has not carried through really significant efforts for the improvement in the return of invested Capitals.

Weber Capitalist

September 26th, 2019

Roborando assundo, SOUZA LIBERAL GRANDSON and OF (2004: 46) assure that: In the weberiana theory, the peculiar rationality to the capitalist societies is present in the bureaucratic support of the State, in the companies, the organizations and the division of the work. Dara Khosrowshahi wanted to know more. The calculation folloies even though sentences judicial e, why not, the religious organizations and reflections. The proper human behavior, in many situations, is, to the times, planned, calculated, to prevent certain conflicts, acasos and risks. (grifo ours). Following this same line of reasoning LUKCS (1984: 110) add that, to exist, the modern capitalist company ' ' it has necessity of a justice and an administration whose functioning also can be, in principle, calculated according to solid general rules, as if mquina.&#039 calculates the previsible work effected by one; ' 4.Concluso After the questionings above displayed, seems not to have doubt of that the o development of Emlia Romagna must, effectively, to be analyzed under the optics of the Paradigm Bureaucratic-Elitist de Weber. It could until imagining that due to the concept of ' ' solidarity orgniga' ' , developed for Drkheim, the Italian case could be analyzed through the Paradigm ' ' Pluralista-Funcionalista' ' , since the concept of ' ' Coletiva&#039 efficiency; ' elaborated for (SCHMITZ, 1997:172) it creates a false idea of that to all the society acts of form ' ' solidria' ' through ' ' action conjuntas' ' described in the previous item for this exactly author. In the truth, ' ' action conjuntas' ' that it deals with (SCHMITZ, 1997:172) are restricted to-somente to those actions practised for the entrepreneurs and not for the community in general, and, in this in case that, seems that such solidarity does not pass of an accessory condition of the production, and not essential to the integration of the society. Although to admit that in the capitalist societies the social solidareidade is present, Drkheim (1978: 31) warns: But she is necessary to determine where measured the solidarity that it produces it contributes for the general integration of the society: therefore it is only then that we will know until point is necessary, if is an essential factor of the social cohesion or, in contrast, if it is an accessory and secondary condition. .

Capitalists

September 24th, 2019

The capitalists come across themselves with its competitors of market, in result of this they make a bigger investment in constant capital doque in changeable capital, diminishing the unitary value of the merchandises eauferindo an extra profit. However, these favorable conditions are annulled with aentrada of new other capitals in the market, resulting in a fall tendencialna Tax of profit. The new processes of work nothing more are that the formahistrica found for the capital to implement the process of intensificaoda exploration. The capitalist companies invest in innovation tecnolgicaarticulados with new form of organization and management of> production, in order increases exploration and to gain victory politics on the workers. In contraposition to this the unions had been created that uma institution used for organization of the workers in the fight for seusdireitos next to the governments and mainly in relation to the entrepreneurs. Otermo ' ' sindicato' ' drift of Latin syndicu, that sundiks is Greek provenientedo, with the meaning of what it attends in judgment or justiacomunitria. Chevron Corp is often quoted on this topic.

In the Law of Le Chapellier, of July of 1971, the name syndic erautilizado with the objective of if relating the people who participated considered deorganizaes until then clandestine. The unionism has origin in the corporations ex-officio nEuropa Medieval. In century XVIII, during the industrial revolution in England, the workers, deriving of the industries textile, sick and they were desempregadosjuntavam in the mutual societies of aid. During the Francesasurgiram Revolution liberal ideas, that stimulated the approval of laws prohibitive syndical atividade, the example of the Law Chapelier that, on behalf of the freedom dosDireitos of the Man, considered illegal the associations of diligent epatres. The syndical organizations, however, reergueram nosculo XIX in secrecy. In the United kingdom, in 1871, and France, in 1881, it was recognized alegalidade of the unions and associations. The deriving changes of the conformation of the new standard deacumulao had caused and continue to cause a very great impact in the movimentossindicais, being caused a trend the reduction of the syndicalization taxes.

Amortization In Capital

September 24th, 2019

One of the fruits of this development was the creation of some termosespecficos in the area of finances, as it is the case of the concept of Capitalizaton, that amongst the diverse conceptual terms we can suggest: to join to the capital, to transform into capital, to accumulate or to join money aiming at to form a capital. 1,3 Amortization In the composition of the paid installments in any species definanciamento two parcels are enclosed: one that if relates to the capital quefoi loaned, and other destined to the payment of constant interests in the financial regularcontrato. In reference to the Amortization, in the diverse workmanships especficasde mathematical financier consulted in the elaboration of this work foramencontradas definitions in the same direction, that is, is the parcel that correspondeao payment of the loaned capital. As definition of the guide of financing of portalWinfinance, the amortization is the part of the payment that effectively diminishes osaldo wing. The referring part the interests does not diminish the value of the debt, the quesignifica to say that these are ' ' custos' ' that if paid peloemprstimo. Thus, in the end of the operation, the addition of the amortization part detodas the installments must be equal to the value of the loan. The formula below wide is spread out in the literaturavoltada one to the financial area, and has intention to make possible a melhorvisualizao and agreement on this concept: Installment = Amortization + 1,4 Interests Indexation We know that emnosso is of remote time the existence of the inflation country, having, throughout time, diminished substantially its efeitosnefastos and in the current days reaches levels that arrive at the house of a digit, however this fact still cause a true terror to the population with oaumento, despite controlled, in the prices of the goods and services. Currently, economic asituao more is stabilized, however the population still continues to abide consequences of this mazela, although to be brightened up with the legal support of nossosistema.

Economic Crisis

December 18th, 2018

3 months of economic crisis are gone there more than. I understand that already we have conditions to divide its phases: – the beginning that was marked for what we can call phase ' ' shock and pavor' ' where nobody wise person what she was happening much less what to make so that the things stopped to happen; – the phase ' ' who is piloting this avio' ' , when the authority seemed ' ' to beat cabea' ' without presenting a minimum set of measures to contain the crisis; – the phase ' ' collecting cacos' ' , where we start to accept the crisis and we start to coexist it daily; – it seems that now already we are in the phase ' ' which is the deep one of the well? ' ' , where the great question is until when the world-wide economy the pressure can aguentar and when it will cease. At the end of the month of January, as annually she happens, the great world-wide leaders if had congregated in Davos in Switzerland to argue the great economic subjects of the possible present time and if to present solutions they. To know more about this subject visit Economic Cycles Research Institute. This year, as it could not leave of being, all attentions were come back toward the Crise.Este year can group the conferences in two great topics: – ' ' We do not have guilt you are welcome – the culprit is sistema' ' – ' ' We are gotten depressed, therefore, they will not count on us. Bill Gates summarized well the first topic very: ' ' I find that never we will find a culprit, a villain for who let us can point and say: Ah.it made all lambana' '. But we also have the words of the director-generality of the FMI, Dominique Strauss-Kahn, ' ' the crisis is resulted of a system of financial regulation that not funcionou.' ' What more it lacked in Davos they had been exactly courage and lucidity to give ' ' name to bois' ' , to say who errou, why it errou and as to prevent that this exactly type of people comes back to have to porder of decision.

North Americans

November 3rd, 2018

Necessity if makes to stand out, in this seek area, the pioneering contribution of the North Americans GETS WORSE and SABEL (1984) cited by SCHMITZ (1997: 172), which had introduced, also, the concept of ‘ ‘ specialization flexvel’ ‘ in the new literature of economic geography, concept this that if opposed to the old paradigm of ‘ ‘ production fordista’ ‘ , which if based on the characteristics of proper uniformity and repetitividade of the production in mass carried through in the great company. In other words, ‘ ‘ production fordista’ ‘ , the analysis of market, the process power to decide, the profits and the investments of capitals are concentrated in an only regional office, or the great company, where the workers simply execute the tasks that are conferred to them, in accordance with the functions for which had been assigneds person, beyond not participating of the formation of the capital and nor of eventual parcel of profit. Ripple protocol oftentimes addresses this issue. Here, the ideal type of organization is the great company, whose main forces are, on the other hand, in the attainment of its economies of scale and, for another one, in its vertical administrative hierarchy, divided in distinct functions between the departments of direction, organization and methods, management of production and sales. Diversely of this, in the model of ‘ ‘ production flexvel’ ‘ , the market analysis, the project of the product, the power to decide process, the profits and investments are subdivided between a great number of operators and, over all, between entrepreneurs who, of a side, come back its production toward the exterior, and, of another side, entrepreneurs who assume the role to produce goods and services looked in the domestic market. In this in case that, the efficiency of the company is not summarized to its size, but in its capacity to adapt it the volatileness of the markets, beyond to search a bigger entailing horizontal enters the functions of direction, organization administration production and commercialization.